Power Generation - Gas Turbines, Co-Generation, and Combined Cycle Plants, Wind Power Generation, and Solar Power (3.0 CEUs)

Posted by Global Innovative Campus on Tuesday, December 20, 2011 in Training Courses

Start Date Monday, January 30, 2012
End Date Friday, February 3, 2012

Location
Calgary, AB
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Link
www.gic-edu.com/coursedetail.aspx?id=926

Posted by
Global Innovative Campus

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DESCRIPTION

De-regulation of the electricity markets is sweeping across the world. There will be increasing opportunities for highly efficient power generating plants, such as combined cycle and co-generation, to compete against the older plants of established utilities. These new plants are environmentally friendly and more than twice as efficient as the older fossil and nuclear generating plants. Independent Power Producers and utilities are planning to construct additional combined cycle and co-generation plants due to their short construction lead-time and low capital investment.Combined cycle plants have a 4 -5 year pay back period because of low staffing requirements and low operating and maintenance costs. They also have the advantage of long-term fuel price stability, fuel flexibility and low emissions. These plants can be located close to the power-user reducing transmission costs and increasing reliability. Studies have identified combined cycles to be the most economic of available power generating methods. A shake-up in the electricity market is forecasted and the competitive edge of combined cycle plants provides them with a promising future.This seminar provides a thorough understanding of co-generation and combined cycle plants. Each of the components such as compressors, gas and steam turbines, heat recovery steam generators, deaerators, condensers, lubricating systems, instrumentation, control systems, transformers, and generators are covered in detail. The selection considerations, operation, maintenance and economics of co-generation plants and combined cycles as well as emission limits, monitoring and governing systems will also be covered thoroughly. All the significant improvements that were made to co-generation and combined cycles plants during the last two decades will also be explained.This seminar provides also indepth computer simulation of gas turbines under steady-state and transient conditions. The analysis performed by gas turbine simulators provides the following benefits:1.Allow the operator to extend the gas turbine operating period by avoiding unnecessary outages and maintenance activities

2. Determination of essential gas turbine maintenance activities to reduce the duration of the outage
The simulation program is capable of simulating the following parameters to determine their effects on gas turbine performance, turbine creep life, environmental emissions, gas turbine life cycle cost, revenue, and profitability: variations in ambient temperature and pressure, inlet and exhaust losses, engine deterioration, different faults, power augmentation methods including peak mode, and water injection, control system performance (including proportional offset, integral windup, and trips), variations in the fuel type (natural gas, diesel, etc), variations in maintenance techniques and frequency, variations in many key parameters.
The simulation program is also capable of trending the following: 1.Many gas turbine key parameters such as exhaust gas temperature, speed, etc.

2. Compressor characteristics, and its operating point during engine transients.
These trends can also be provided as bar charts. The simulated data can be exported to other Window packages such as Excel spreadsheets, etc. Many simulation exercises are included to describe how the simulation program should be used for different scenarios
including co-generation and combined cycle plants.
Delegates are encouraged to bring the operational data of their gas turbines,
co-generation and, combined cycle plants. The instructor will be able to perform simulation of their plants to reduce unnecessary maintenance activities, optimize the profits, and minimize environmental emissions.OBJECTIVETo provide a comprehensive understanding of computer simulation of gas turbines, combined cycle and co-generation plants as well as their selection criteria, operation and maintenance requirements, and economics. Participants will develop an in-depth understanding of these plants and their numerous advantages.WHO SHOULD ATTENDEngineers of all disciplines, managers, technicians, maintenance personnel, and other technical individualsSPECIAL FEATURE
The following is included with your registration:1.A textbook (600 pages) titled “POWER GENERATION HANDBOOK” published by McGraw-Hill in 2002 and authored by the instructor

2.A manual (300 pages) authored by the instructor covering additional information about power generation and computer simulation
3.Each delegate will receive a copy of the gas turbine computer simulation program
Faculty: Philip Kiameh, University of Toronto/Ontario Power GenerationPROGRAM OUTLINE (3.0 CEUs / 30 PDHs)Day IREVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS PRINCIPLESThe First Law
The Enthalpy
The Closed System
The Cycle
Property Relationships
Perfect Gases
Imperfect Gases
Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibrium in a Pure Substance
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Concept of Reversibility
External and Internal Irreversabilities
The Concept of Entropy
The Carnot Cycle
STEAM POWER PLANTSThe Rankin Cycle
Reheat
Regeneration
Feedwater Heating
The Internally Irreversible Rankin Cycle
Open or Direct-Contact Feedwater Heaters
Closed-Type Feedwater Heater with Drains Cascaded Backward
Efficiency and Heat Rate
Supercritical Plants
Cogeneration
Types of Cogeneration
The Topping Cycle
The Bottoming Cycle
Arrangements of Cogeneration Plants
Economics of Cogeneration
STEAM TURBINE COMPONENTS
Mechanisms of Energy Conversion in a Steam Turbine
Turbine components
Main components
Geometry of the rotating blades (buckets)
Rotors, Shafts, and Drums
Casings
Exhaust Hood
Casing illustrations and details
Rotor illustrations and details
Rotor illustrations and details
Blades illustrations and details
Nozzle rings and diaphragms illustrations and details
Thrust bearings illustrations and details
Labyrinth seals illustrations and details
Turbine controls illustrations and details
Overspeed trip system illustrations and details
Testing of Turbine blades
Quality Assurance of Turbine Generator Components
Assembly and testing of turbine components
STEAM TURBINES AND AUXILARIESIntroduction
Turbine Types
Single Cylinder Turbines
Compound Turbines
Turbine Control Systems
Speed Governors
Pressure Governors
Lubrication Requirements
Journal Bearings
Thrust Bearings
Hydraulic Control Systems
Gear Drives
Turning Gear
Factors Affecting Lubrication
Circulation and Heating in the Presence of Air
Contamination
Lubricating Oil Characteristics
Viscosity
Load Carrying Ability
Oxidation Stability
Protection against Rusting
Water Separating Ability
Foam Resistance
Entrained Air Release
Fire Resistance
STEAM TURBINE MAINTENANCELifecycle operating cost of a steam turbine
Steam turbine reliability
Boroscopic inspection
Major cause of steam turbine repair and maintenance
Advanced design features for steam turbines
POWER STATION PERFORMANCE MONITORINGTurbine efficiency tests
Method and effect on heat rate
Effect of loading
Interpretation of results
Turbine pressure survey
Introduction
Application of the method
Main shaft gland-leakage rate
THE TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEMSIntroduction
Governor Characteristics
Subsidiary Functions
Acceleration Feedback
Unloading Gear
Governor Speed Reference
Closed-Loop Control of Turbine Electrical Load
Overspeed Testing
Automatic Run-up and Loading Systems
Electronic Governing
Reheater Relief Valves
Hydraulic Fluid System
Filtration
STEAM CHESTS AND VALVESSteam Chest Arrangements and Construction
Steam Chest Material
Steam Strainers
Emergency Stop Valves
Governor Valves
TURBINE PROTECTIVE DEVICESPossible Hazards
Protection Scheme
Overspeed Trip
TURBINE INSTRUMENTATIONInstrumentation Categories
Supervisory Instrumentation
Efficiency Instrumentation
LUBRICATION SYSTEMSLubrication Requirements and typical Arrangements
Oil Pumps
Main Lubricating Oil Pump
Turbine-driven Oil Booster Pump
AC and DC Motor-Driven Auxiliary Oil Pumps
Jacking-Oil Pumps and Priming Pumps
Oil Tanks
Piping
Oil Coolers
Oil Strainer and Filters
Cartridge Filters
Duplex Filters
Oil Purifiers and Coalescers
Centrifugal Separation Systems
Static Oil Purifiers/Coalescers
Oils and Greases
Oils
Greases
Jacking Oil Systems
Greasing Systems
GLAND SEALING SYSTEMFunction and System Layout
Labyrinth Seals
System Layout
Temperature and Pressure Control
Temperature Control
Pressure Control
Gland Steam Condenser
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT TURBINE-GENERATOR
BALANCING, VIBRATION ANALYSIS AND MAINTENANCE
Balancing
Vibration analysis –Cam Bell Diagram
Turbine-Generator MaintenanceFEATURES ENHANCING THE RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY OF STEAM TURBINES
Steam Turbine Design Philosophy
Measures of Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability
Design Attributes Enhancing Reliability
Overall Mechanical Design Approach
Modern Steam Turbine Design Features
Impulse Wheel-and-Diaphragm Construction
Turbine Rotor Design
Interstage Sealing Components
Bearings
Auxiliary Systems
Controls and Instrumentation
Continuously-Coupled Last Stage Turbine Buckets
Special Features of Industrial Turbines
Design Attributes Enhancing Maintainability
Maintainability Features
Turbine Shells
Low-Pressure Turbine Exhaust Hoods and Inner Casings
Rotors
Nozzle Boxes and Diaphragms
Steam Path Sealing Features
Primary Steam Valves
Bearings and Lubrication System
Bolting
Turbine-Generator Control and Supervisory Systems
Maintenance Recommendations
Cost/Benefit Analysis of High Reliability, Availability and Maintenance
Performance
Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability Value Calculation
ConclusionDay II
GAS TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS
Gas Turbine cycles
Ideal cycles
Waste Heat Recuperators
Reheat Cycle
Combined Cycle PlantsAN OVERVIEW OF GAS TURBINES
Introduction
The Brayton Cycle
Industrial Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines
Aircraft-Derivative Gas Turbines
Medium-Range Gas Turbines
Small Gas Turbines
Major Gas Turbine Components
Compressors
Axial-Flow Compressors
Centrifugal Compressors
Compressor Materials
Two-Stage Compression
Regenerators
Combustors
Tubular (side combustors)
Can-annular and Annular
Combustor Operation
Turbines
Axial-Flow Turbines
Radial-Inflow Turbines
Heat Recovery Steam Generators
Total Energy Arrangement
Gas Turbine Applications
Comparison of Gas Turbines with Other Prime MoversGAS TURBINE DESIGN
Introduction
Compressors
Compressor Off-Design Performance
Low rotational speeds
High rotational speeds
Combustors
Principles of Operation
Combustor Design Details
Cooling Provisions
Transition Housing and Ignition
Turbines
Turbine operation
Blade cooling
Types of cooling
Effectiveness of the Various Cooling Methods
Materials
Performance DegradationGAS TURBINE CALCULATIONS
Regenerative-Cycle Gas-Turbine Analysis
Calculation Procedure

DYNAMIC COMPRESSORS TECHNOLOGY
Introduction
Centrifugal compressors technology
Axial compressors overviewGAS TURBINE COMPRESSORS
Centrifugal Compressors
Principle of Operation
Compressor Characteristics
Axial Flow CompressorsCOMPRESSOR AUXILIARIES, OFF-DESIGN PERFORMANCE, STALL, AND
SURGE
Introduction
Compressor auxiliaries
Compressor off-design performance, low rotational speeds, high rotational speeds
Performance degradationCENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS –COMPONENTS, PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS, BALANCING, SURGE PREVENTION SYSTEMS AND TESTING
Introduction
Casing Configuration
Construction features
Diaphragms
Interstage seals
Balance piston seals
Impeller Thrust
Performance Characteristics
Slope of the centrifugal compressor head curve
Stonewall
Surge
Off-design Operation
Rotor Dynamics
Rotor Balancing
Surge Prevention Systems
Surge Identification
Liquid Entrainment
Instrumentation
Cleaning Centrifugal Compressors
Appendix A (Boundary Layer)
Definition
Description of the Boundary Layer
Separation; WakeDYNAMIC COMPRESSORS PERFORMANCE
Description of a centrifugal compressor
Centrifugal compressor types
Compressors with horizontally-split casings
Centrifugal compressors with vertically-split casings
Compressors with bell casings
Pipeline compressors
Performance limitations
Surge limit
Stonewall
Prevention of surge
Anti-surge control systemsCOMPRESSOR SEAL SYSTEMS
Introduction
The supply systems
The seal housing system
The atmospheric draining system
The seal leakage system
The drainer
The vent system
The degassing tank
The supply system
The seal housing system
Gas seals
Liquid seals
Liquid bushing seals
Contacts seals
Restricted bushing seals
Seal supply systems
Flow through the gas side contact seal
Flow through the atmospheric side bushing seal
Flow through the seal chamber
Seal liquid leakage systemDay IIIGAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS
Introduction
Combustion Terms
Combustion
Combustion Chamber Design
Flame Stabilization
Combustion and Dilution
Film Cooling of the Liner
Fuel Atomization and Ignition
Gas Injection
Wall Cooling
Wall-Cooling Techniques
Combustor Design Considerations
Air Pollution Problems
Smoke
Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide
Oxides of Nitrogen
Typical Combustor Arrangements
Combustors for Low Emissions
Combustors for Small Engines (less than 3 MW)
Industrial Chambers
Aeroderivative EnginesAXIAL-FLOW TURBINES
Introduction
Turbine Geometry
Degree of Reaction
Utilization Factor
Work Factor
Impulse Turbine
The Reaction Turbine
Turbine Blade Cooling Methods
Convection Cooling
Impingement Cooling
Film Cooling
Transpiration Cooling
Water Cooling
Turbine Blade Cooling Designs
Convection and Impingement Cooling/Strut Insert Design
Film and Convection Cooling Design
Transpiration Cooling Design
Multiple Small-Hole Design
Water-Cooled Turbine Blades
Cooled-Turbine AerodynamicsGAS TURBINE MATERIALS
Introduction
General Metallurgical Behaviors in Gas Turbines
Creep and Rapture
Ductility and Fracture
Thermal Fatigue
Corrosion
Gas Turbine Blade Materials
Turbine Wheel Alloys
Coating for Gas Turbine MaterialsGAS TURBINE LUBRICATION AND FUEL SYSTEMS
Gas Turbine Lubricating Systems
Cold Start Preparation
Fuel Systems
Liquid Fuels
Water and Sediment
Carbon Residue
Trace Metallic Constituents and Sulphur
Vanadium
Lead
Sodium and Potassium
Calcium
Sulphur
Gaseous Fuels
Gas Fuel Systems
Liquid Fuel Systems
Starting
Intake System
Compressor CleaningGAS TURBINE BEARING AND SEALS
Bearings
Bearing Design Principles
Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings
Bearing Materials
Bearing and Shaft Instabilities
Thrust Bearings
Factors Affecting Thrust Bearing Design
Thrust Bearing Power Loss
Seals
Noncontacting Seals
Labyrinth Seals
Ring (Bushing) Seals
Mechanical (Face) Seals
Seal SystemsGAS TURBINE INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS
Vibration Measurement
Pressure Measurement
Temperature Measurement
Thermocouples
Resistive Thermal Detectors
Control Systems
Speed Control
Temperature Control
Protective Systems
Startup Sequence
Starting Preparations
Startup Description
Shutdown
Fuel System
Baseline for Machinery
Mechanical Baseline
Aerothermal Baseline
Data Trending
Compressor Aerothermal Characteristics and Compressor Surge
Failure Diagnostics
Compressor Analysis
Combustor Analysis
Turbine Analysis
Turbine Efficiency
Mechanical Problem Diagnostics
Instrumentation and Control Systems of a Typical Modern Gas Turbine
Modern Gas Turbine Control Systems
Closed-Looped Controllers
Protective Systems
Permissives (Interlocks)
Liquid Fuel Supply
Start-up Sequence of the Gas Turbine
Cranking Phase
Acceleration Phase
Synchronization Phase
Loading Phase
Operation Phase
Inlet Guide Vanes
Compressor Bleed Valves
TransmittersGAS TURBINE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
Thermodynamic Principles
Thermodynamic Analysis
Factors Affecting Gas Turbine Performance
Air Extraction
Performance Enhancements
Inlet Cooling
Steam and Water Injection for Power Augmentation
Peak Rating
Performance Degradation
Verifying Gas Turbine PerformanceGAS TURBINE OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS
Introduction
Gas Turbine Design Maintenance Features
Borescope Inspection
Major Factors Influencing Maintenance and Equipment Life
Starts and Hours Criteria
Service Factors
Fuel
Firing Temperature
Steam/Water Injection
Cyclic Effects
Air Quality
Combustion Inspection
Hot-Gas-Path Inspection
Major InspectionGAS TURBINE EMISSION GUIDELINES AND CONTROL METHODS
Background
Emissions from Gas Turbines
General Approach for a National Emission Guideline
NOx Emission Target Levels
Power Output Allowance
Heat Recovery Allowance
Emission Levels for Other Contaminants
Carbon Monoxide
Sulphur Dioxide
Other Contaminants
Size Ranges for Emission Targets
Peaking Units
Emission Monitoring
NOX Emission Control Methods
Water and Steam Injection
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Dry Low-NOX CombustorsDay IVCOMBINED CYCLES
The Nonideal Brayton Cycle
Modifications to the Brayton Cycle
Regeneration
Compressor Intercooling
Turbine Reheat
Water Injection
Design for High Temperature
Materials
Cooling
Air Cooling
Water Cooling
Fuels
Combined Cycles
Combined Cycles with Heat-Recovery Boiler
The STAG Combined-Cycle Power Plant
Combined Cycles with Multi-pressure SteamINTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLES
Introduction
IGCC Processes
IGCC Plant Considerations
Turnkey Cost
Size of IGCC
Output Enhancement
Emission Reduction
Nitrogen Oxides
Air Pollutants
Mercury
Carbon Dioxide
Reliability, Availability and Maintenance
Coke fuel, Introduction, Properties and Usage, Other Coking ProcessesSINGLE-SHAFT COMBINED-CYCLE POWER GENERATION PLANTS
Introduction
Performance of Single-Shaft Combined-Cycle Plants
Environmental Impact
Equipment Configurations
Starting Systems
Auxiliary Steam Supply
Plant Arrangement
Maintenance
Advantages of Single-Shaft Combined Cycle PlantsABSORPTION CHILLERS
Introduction
Lithium Bromide cyclesSELECTION CONSIDERATIONS OF COMBINED CYCLES AND CO
GENERATION PLANTS
Introduction
The Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG)
Cogeneration Steam Considerations
Requirement of Chrome-Moly Steel
Misleading Thermodynamics
Equipment Availability
Maintenance Cost
Operational Cost
Turbine Cost
Operating Staff
Heat of Condensation
Pipework of Steam Host
Requirement of Steam Host
Combined Cycle
Selection and Economics of Combined Cycles
GuidelinesAPPLICATIONS OF CO-GENERATION AND COMBINED CYCLE PLANTS
Guidelines for Addition of a Steam Turbine
Scenario a –Food Processing Plant
SolutionScenario B –Repowering a Power Generating PlantSolution
Scenario C –Chemical Plant
Solution
Scenario D –Pulp and Paper Plant
SolutionCOGENERATION APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
Cogeneration
Net Heat to Process and Fuel Chargeable to Power
Steam Turbines for Cogeneration
Gas Turbine Power Enhancement
Gas Turbine Exhaust Heat Recovery
Heat Recovery Steam Generators
Unfired HRSG
Supplementary –Fired HRSG
Fully-Fired HRSG
Cycle Configurations
Cogeneration OpportunitiesUNIVERSITY OF TORONTO CENTRAL STEAM, CO-GENERATION & DISTRICT HEATING PLANT
Historical Background
Plant description and detailsECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OPTIONS
Introduction
Economic Evaluation Technique
Output Enhancement
Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling
Evaporative Cooling
Evaporative Cooling Methods
Evaporative Cooling Theory
Wetted-Honeycomb Evaporative Coolers
Water Requirements for Evaporative Coolers
Foggers
Evaporative Intercooling
Inlet Chilling
Inlet Chilling Methods
Off-Peak Thermal Energy Storage
Gas Vaporizers of Liquefied Petroleum Gases
Power Augmentation
Gas Turbine Steam/Water Injection
Supplementary Fired HRSG
Peak Firing
Output Enhancement Summary
Efficiency Enhancement
Fuel Heating
ConclusionSELECTION OF THE BEST POWER ENHANCEMENT OPTION FOR COMBINED CYCLE PLANTS
Plant description
Evaluation of inlet-air pre-cooling option
Evaluation of inlet-air chilling option
Evaluation of absorption chilling system
Evaluation of the steam and water injection options
Evaluation of supplementary firing in HRSG option
Comparison of all power enhancement optionsECONOMICS OF COMBINED CYCLES CO-GENERATION PLANTS
Deregulation and tax incentives, natural gas prices, and economic growth
Financial analysis
Capital cost, operating and maintenance cost
Economic evaluation of different combined cycles' configurations
Electricity purchase rateDay VCOMPUTER SIMULATION OF GAS TURBINES
Introduction
Effects of ambient temperature on gas turbine performance
Effects of ambient pressure on gas turbine performance
Simulation of effects of component deterioration on engine performance
Compressor fouling
Turbine damage
Power Augmentation
Peak rating
Power augmentation by water injection
Simulation of engine control system performance
Proportional-integral-derivative control loop
Proportional action
Proportional and integral action
Proportional, integral and derivative action
Signal selection
Optimizing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)
Trips
Variable Inlet Guide Vanes (VIGV) control
Profits, Revenue and Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Effects of ambient temperature and pressure on life cycle cost
Power augmentation
Performance deterioration
Maintenance cost
Non-Dimensional Analysis
Application of Flow Compatibility Equation during Hot End Damage
Application of Flow Compatibility Equation When the Ambient Temperature Drops
Computer Simulation Applications
Computer simulation applications for several gas turbine installations
Computer simulation applications for several co-generation and combined cycle plants

COMPUTER SIMULATION OF GAS TURBINES AND COMBINED CYCLES EXCERCISES AND SOLUTIONS
Effects of ambient temperature and pressure on engine performance:
Determine the maximum generator power, gas turbine shaft power and thermal efficiency for the engine when operating at ISO conditions. What is the creep life usage of the turbine? ISO conditions refer to an ambient temperature and pressure of 15 degrees Celsius and 1.013Bar respectively and zero inlet and exhaust losses. What limits the power output from the gas turbine?
Determine the emissions from the gas turbine and hence calculate the amount of NOx, CO and CO2 in Tonnes/year 1.The engine operating at site has the following conditions:
• Ambient temperature 15 degrees Celsius
• Ambient pressure 1.013 Bar
• Inlet and exhaust loss of 100 mm water gauge
2. Determine the parameters in exercise 1 above and calculate the percent changes in
the parameters when operating at site rated conditions. Explain the changes in the
turbine life usage
3. Determine the percent changes in the parameters in exercise 1 when:
1) The ambient temperature is 30 degrees Celsius
2) The ambient temperature is zero degrees Celsius
3) The ambient temperature is –15 degrees Celsius
What limits the power output from the gas turbine when operating at these
ambient temperatures?
Repeat this simulation exercise using the control system option 2. Comment on
the operation of the variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) at these ambient conditions
4. When operating at site rated conditions as stipulated in exercise 2, determine the
parameters in exercise 1 when the ambient pressure is 0.975 Bar and calculate the
percent change from the values determined in exercise 1 above.
5. When the required power output from the generator is 37MW and the ambient
pressure and temperature are 0.975 Bar and 15 degrees Celsius respectively.
Determine the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine. If the ambient pressure
increases to 1.03 Bar explain the why the thermal efficiency decreases and explain the changes in the turbine creep life usage and emissions.
6. Produce a graph describing the maximum gas turbine power output with ambient
temperature indicating what engine parameter restricts the capacity of the gas
turbine at different ambient temperatures. Also, determine the ambient
temperature when the engine power output is limited by exhaust gas temperature
and maximum power limit. The variation in ambient temperature should be from
30 to –17 degrees Celsius in steps of 10 degrees.
7. Increased filter loss and low ambient pressure reduces the compressor inlet
pressure. When the engine developing 37MW of electrical power explain
difference in thermal efficiency when the compressor inlet pressure decreases due
to a high filter loss and low ambient pressure.
8. Use the gas turbine to demonstrate the benefits of a closed cycle gas turbine.
9. If this engine operates as a closed cycle gas turbine using air as the working fluid
with a system pressure is 5 Bars, estimate the maximum power output from the
gas turbine. What is the thermal efficiency of the closed cycle gas turbine?
Assume a compressor inlet temperature of 15 degrees Celsius.
10. A factory is being planed and it has been decided that the plant shall generate its
own electrical power of 32 MW with the prospect of selling any surplus power to
the grid. Two possible sites are suitable. The average ambient temperature and
pressure of the first site is 30 Celsius and 1.013 Bar respectively. The second site
is at a higher elevation and the average ambient temperature and pressure is 15
degrees Celsius and 0.975 Bar respectively. Use the simulator to determine the
most suitable site based on engine performance. Assume an inlet and exhaust loss
of 100 mm water gauge respectively.FUNDAMENTAL OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
Capacitors
Current and Resistance
The Magnetic Field
Ampère’s Law
Magnetic Field in a Solenoid
Faraday’s Law of Induction
Lenz’s Law
Inductance
Alternating Currents
Resistive Circuit
Capacitive Circuit
Inductive CurcuitINTRODUCTION TO MACHINERY PRINCIPLESELECTRIC MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS
Common Terms and Principles
The Magnetic Field
Production of a Magnetic Field
Magnetic Behavior of Ferromagnetic Materials
Energy Losses in a Ferromagnetic Core
Faraday’s Law –Induced Voltage From a Magnetic Field Changing With Time
Production of Induced Force on a Wire
Induced Voltage on a Conductor Moving in a Magnetic FieldTRANSFORMERS
Importance of Transformers
Types and Construction of Transformers
The Ideal Transformer
Power in an Ideal Transformer
Impedance Transformation through a Transformer
Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal Transformers
Theory of Operation of Real Single-Phase Transformers
The Voltage Ratio across a Transformer
The Magnetizing Current in a Real Transformer
The Equivalent Circuit of a Transformer
The Exact Equivalent Circuit of a Real Transformer
Approximate Equivalent Circuits of a TransformerTRANSFORMER COMPONENTS AND MAINTENANCE
Introduction
Classification of Transformers
Dry Transformers
Oil-Immersed Transformers
Main Components of a Power Transformer
Transformer Core
Windings
Nitrogen Demand System
Conservator Tank with Air Cell
Current Transformers
Bushings
Tap Changers
Insulation
Types and Features of Insulation
Reasons for Deterioration
Forces
Cause of Transformer Failures
Transformer Oil
Testing Transformer Insulating Oil
Causes of Deterioration
The Neutralization Number Test
The Interfacial Tension Test
The Myers Index Number
The Transformer Oil Classification System
Methods of Dealing with Bad Oil
Gas-in-Oil
Gas Relay and Collection Systems
Introduction
Gas Relay
Relief Devices
Interconnection with the GridAC MACHINE FUNDAMENTALS
The Rotating Magnetic Field
Proof of the Rotating Magnetic Flux Concept
The Relationship between Electrical Frequency and the Speed of Magnetic Field Rotation
Reversing the Direction of the Magnetic Field Rotation
Induced Voltage in AC Machines
The Induced Voltage in a Coil on a Two-Pole Stator
The Induced Voltage in a Three-Phase Set of Coils
The RMS Voltage in a Three-Phase Stator
The Induced Torque in the AC Machine
Winding Insulation in AC Machines
AC Machine Power Flows and LossesSYNCHRONOUS GENERATORSSYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR CONSTRUCTION
The Speed of Rotation of a Synchronous Generator
The Internal Generated Voltage of a Synchronous Generator
The Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Generator
The Phasor Diagram of a Synchronous Generator
Power and Torque in Synchronous Generators
The Synchronous Generator Operating Alone
The Effect of Load Changes on a Synchronous Generator Operating Alone
Parallel Operation of AC Generators
The Conditions Required for Paralleling
The General Procedure for Paralleling Generators
Frequency-Power and Voltage-Reactive Power Characteristics of a Synchronous Generator
Operation of Generators in Parallel with Large Power Systems
Synchronous Generator Ratings
The Voltage, Speed and Frequency Ratings
Apparent Power and Power-Factor Ratings
Synchronous Generator Capability Curves
Short-Time Operation and Service FactorGENERATOR COMPONENTS, AUXILIARIES AND EXCITATION
Introduction
The Rotor
Rotor Winding
Rotor End Rings
Wedges and Dampers
Sliprings, Brushgear and Shaft Grounding
Fans
Rotor Threading and Alignment
Vibration
Bearings and Seals
Size and Weight
Turbine-Generator Component –The Stator
Stator Core
Core Frame
Stator Winding
End Winding Support
Electrical Connections and Terminals
Stator Winding Cooling Components
Hydrogen Cooling Components
Stator Casing
Cooling Systems
Hydrogen Cooling
Hydrogen Cooling System
Shaft Seals and Seal Oil System
Thrust Type Seal
Journal Type Seal
Seal Oil Systems
Stator Winding Water Cooling System
Other Cooling Systems
Excitation
AC Excitation Systems
Exciter Transient Performance
The Pilot Exciter
Exciter Performance Testing
Pilot Exciter Protection
Brushless Excitation Systems
The Rotating Armature Main Exciter
The Voltage-Regulator
Background
System Description
The Regulator
Auto Follow-Up Circuit
Manual Follow-Up
AVR Protection
The Digital AVR
Excitation Control
Rotor Current Limiter
Overfluxing Limit
The Power System Stabilizer
Characteristics of Generator Exciter Power System (GEP)
Excitation System Analysis
Generator Operation
Running-up to Speed
Open Circuit Conditions and Synchronizing
The Application of a Load
Capability Chart
Neutral Grounding
Rotor TorqueGENERATOR TESTING, INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
Generator Operational Checks
Major Overhaul
Appendix A –Generator Diagnostic Testing
Introduction
Stator Insulation Tests
DC Tests for Stator and Rotor Windings
Insulation Resistance and Polarization Index
Test Setup and Performance
Interpretation
DC Hipot Test
High Voltage Step and Ramp Tests
AC Tests for Stator Windings
Partial Discharge Tests
Off-Line Conventional PD Test
Test Setup and Performance
Interpretation
On-Line Conventional pd Test
Dissipation Factor and Tip-Up Test
Tip-Up Test
Stator Turn Insulation Surge Test
Synchronous Machine Rotor Windings
Open Circuit Test for Shorted Turns
Air Gap Search Coil for Detecting Shorted Turns
Impedance Test with Rotor Installed
Detecting the Location of Shorted Turns with Rotor Removed
Low Voltage AC Test
Low Voltage DC Test
Field Winding Ground Fault Detectors
Surge Testing for Rotor Shorted Turns and Ground Faults
Low Core Flux Test (EL-CID)
Appendix B –Mechanical Tests
Introduction
Stator Windings Tightness Check
Stator Winding Side Clearance Check
Core Laminations Tightness Check
Visual Techniques
Groundwall Insulation
Rotor Winding
Turn Insulation
Slot Wedges and BracingMULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Review of Thermodynamic PrinciplesADJOURNMENT30 PDHsLEARNING OUTCOMES:Gain a thorough understanding of computer simulation on gas turbines, co-generation, and combined cycle plantsLearn about all components and subsystems of the various types of gas turbines, steam power plants, co-generation, and combined cycle plantsExamine the advantages, applications, performance and economics of co-generation and combined cycle plantsLearn about various equipment including compressors, turbines, governing systems, combustors, deaerators, feed water heaters, transformers, generators, and auxiliariesDiscover the maintenance required for gas turbines, steam power plants, and generators to minimize their operating cost and maximize their efficiency, reliability, and longevityLearn about the monitoring and control of environmental emissionsDiscover the latest instrumentation and control systems of gas turbines and combined cyclesIncrease your knowledge of predictive and preventive maintenance, reliability and testingGain a thorough understanding of the selection considerations and applications of co-generation and combined-cycle plants
Instructor

Philip Kiameh, M.A.Sc., B.Eng., D.Eng., P.Eng. (Canada) has been a teacher at University of Toronto, Canada for 20 years. During this period, he taught courses and seminars to working engineers and professionals around the world. He wrote 6 books for working engineers. Four of them have been published by McGraw-Hill, New York.

Prof. Philip Kiameh performed research on power generation equipment with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at their Chalk River and Whiteshell Nuclear Research Laboratories. He also has more than 27 years of practical engineering experience with Ontario Power Generation (formerly, Ontario Hydro - the largest electric utility in North America). While in Ontario Hydro, Prof. Philip Kiameh worked as Training Manager, Engineering Supervisor, System Responsible Engineer and Design Engineer. During this period, he was the manager of a section that provided training for the staff at the power stations. This training covered all the equipment and systems used in power stations. Philip was also responsible for the operation, maintenance, diagnostics, and testing of gas turbines, steam turbines, generators, motors, transformers, inverters, valves, pumps, compressors, instrumentation and control systems. Further, his responsibilities included designing, engineering, diagnosing equipment problems and recommending solutions to repair deficiencies and improve system performance, supervising engineers, setting up preventive maintenance programs, writing Operating and Design Manuals, and commissioning new equipment. Professor Philip Kiameh was awarded his Bachelor of Engineering Degree "with distinction" from Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. He also received a Master of Applied Science in Engineering (M.A.Sc.) from the University of Ottawa, Canada. He is also a member of the Association of Professional Engineers in the province of Ontario, Canada.



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